Scientific Program

Day 1

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS
  • Emerging trends in the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in South Asians

    University of British Columbia
    Canada
    Biography

    Parmjit Sohal did his MD from the University of Alberta, Edmonton and PhD in Biochemistry from the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon in Canada.. He has been a Family Physician and Medical Director of the Surrey Medical & Travel Clinic. He is a Clinical Professor in the Department of Family Practice at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. He is a staff member at the Surrey Memorial Hospital. His main area of interest is prevention and management of diabetes in high risk ethnic populations particularly in South Asians. He was awarded 2014 Canada’s Family Physician of the Year Award for BC by the College of Family Physicians of Canada. He was also recently awarded 2014 Frederick Banting Award from the Canadian Diabetes Association.

    Abstract

    South Asians represent almost 25% of the global population. They are at least 3-5 times increased risk of developing diabetes as compared to Caucasians. There is also increased risk of diabetes in South Asians children and adolescents. South Asians have increased prevalence of pre-diabetes states in addition to diabetes. Despite increased prevalence of diabetes among South Asians, majority of the cases remain undiagnosed and poorly controlled. There are several barriers in the prevention and management of diabetes in South Asians which could be at patient, provider or the society level. Primary prevention needs collaboration with health care professionals, community leaders and funding agencies. Our recent Canadian study has shown that that 86% of South Asians diagnosed with diabetes less than 30 years of age were type 2 diabetes. The incidence of type 2 diabetes was highest in South Asians especially in 20-29 year olds with rates 2.2 times that of White and 3.1 times that of Chinese patients. South Asians patients should be screened for diabetes at relatively younger age (preferably starting at age 20) and more frequently than non-South Asians with appropriate prevention efforts in childhood and adolescence. South Asians should be aggressively managed for cardiovascular risk factors due to their high mortality rates from cardiovascular disease. A structured culturally and linguistically relevant program of life style modifications that includes healthy diet, weight control and regular exercise should be implemented to reduce the risk and burden of type 2 diabetes in South Asians.

  • Metformin: A drug for all reasons?

    Weill Cornell Medicine
    Qatar
    Biography

    Chris R. Triggle, PhD, FBPhS (Fellow of the British Pharmacology Society) joined Weill Cornell Medicine - Qatar in 2007 as Professor of Pharmacology and was the Assistant Dean Admissions 2009-2014. He was born in Hackney, London, UK, and obtained a B.Sc. (Honours) in Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia and Ph.D. in Pharmacology, University of Alberta in Edmonton with postdoctoral studies completed in the Department of Biochemical Pharmacology, S.U.N.Y. in Buffalo. He has held academic appointments in both Australia & Canada including the first Director of the Biotechnology Institute and Innovation Professor at RMIT University in Melbourne; Head of the Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Chair in Cardiovascular Research - Alberta Heart and Stroke Foundation, Associate Dean Research Medicine at the University of Calgary, as well as research advisory positions with Ciba and Novartis Canada and chaired numerous peer review grant panels.

    Abstract

    Metformin is the most frequently administered drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes wherein it has vasculoprotective benefits and is also used for PCOS. Furthermore, trials are underway to assess its anti-ageing properties. Over the past ten years and based on evidence from the retrospective analysis of patient data it has also emerged that metformin may reduce the risk of various types of cancer. In addition, the data from a number of in vitro studies indicate that high (mM) concentrations of metformin may have anti-proliferative actions, but the relevance to clinical use is unclear and the cellular basis for the putative anti-cancer effect of metformin remains unknown. Our previous work with metformin indicates that within the concentration range that it is effective as an anti-hyperglycaemic drug metformin also protects the endothelium against the pro-senescence effects of hyperglycaemia (HG) and reverses HG-induced endothelial dysfunction (1,2). In the current study we examined the concentration-dependent effects of metformin on markers of angiogenesis and also markers of the pro-survival endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy pathways in micro-vascular endothelial cells (MECs) in culture.
    Methods: Mouse MECs (MMECs) were exposed for 24h to a low concentration (50 ?M), or a high concentration (2 mM) of metformin in normal glucose (NG), high glucose (HG), or a glucose-starved (GS) culture media. Markers of senescence (?-galactosidase) and ageing (Sirt1), ER stress, (GRP78, ATF4, CHOP), autophagy (LC3A & LC3B) and angiogenesis (antiangiogenic thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) were quantified by western blotting.
    Results and Discussion: Exposure of MMECs to 50 ?M metformin reduced HG-senescence as determined by the ?-galactosidase assay (P < 0.05) and also protected against HG-induced reduction in Sirt1 expression (P < 0.05); however 50 ?M metformin had no effect on GS-induced increases in the protein markers of ER Stress or autophagy. In contrast, exposure to 2 mM, but not 50 ?M, metformin markedly reversed the effect of GS on ER stress proteins as evidenced by the significant decrease in the levels of GRP78 (~ 4 fold, p<0.05) ATF4 (~ 2 fold, p<0.05 and CHOP (~ 3 fold, p<0.05), similarly for autophagy (LC3A-I to LC3A-II ~ 5.5 fold, p<0.05; LC3B-I to LC3B-II ~ 4.3 fold, p<0.05) and in contrast to 50 ?M, metformin raised TSP1 (~ 4.0 fold, p<0.05) and in both NG and GS reduced expression of the anti-ageing deacetylase, Sirt1, by ~ 25% (p<0.05). These data demonstrate concentrationdependent effects of metformin on endothelial function with pro-survival, pro-angiogenesis effects at 50 ?M and anti-angiogenic and anti-survival effects at 2 mM. Whether anti-angiogenic effects of metformin can be achieved during clinical use will depend on the ability of endothelial cells in the blood vessels supplying solid tumours to accumulate metformin – a drug that is not metabolised in humans

  • Recent advances in the understanding and management of islet amyloid ?-cell toxicity in type 2 diabetes and islet transplantation

    University of British Columbia
    Canada
    Biography

    Lucy Marzban is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Canada. She is a diabetes investigator with expertise in the areas of islet biology, pathology and pharmacology. Her research program focuses on identifying the mechanisms underlying islet ?-cell death in diabetes. In past ten years, her team has intensively investigated the mechanisms by which formation of toxic protein aggregates named islet amyloid causes ?-cell death in patients with type 2 diabetes and transplanted human islets in patients with type 1 diabetes. Her studies have led to development of a very interesting model and new strategies to prevent progressive ?-cell loss in pathologic conditions associated with islet amyloid formation.

    Abstract

    Statement of the Problem: Islet amyloid forms by aggregation of the ?-cell hormone human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP). Amyloid formation is a pathologic characteristic of the pancreas in type 2 diabetes (T2D) but also forms in transplanted human islets. Islet amyloid is toxic to ?-cells and contributes to progressive ?-cell loss in both T2D and islet grafts. The current challenge in developing effective therapies to protect islets from amyloid toxicity is our limited knowledge of the mechanisms of amyloidinduced ?-cell death in vivo.
    Methodology: We performed detailed mechanistic studies by using human islets from cadaveric donors and by generation of different transgenic mouse models, to investigate the apoptotic pathways that contribute to ?-cell death caused by formation of hIAPP aggregates in islets and to develop new strategies to protect islets from amyloid toxicity.
    Findings: Based on our studies, we propose a new model that links amyloid formation and islet inflammation in T2D and islet grafts. Our studies show that amyloid formation in human islets promotes interleukin (IL)-1? production which leads to ?-cell upregulation of the Fas cell death receptor and activation of the Fas-mediated apoptotic pathway initiated by caspase-8. We further demonstrate that amyloid formation disrupts the balance between IL-1? and natural IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). Moreover, impaired processing of prohIAPP associated with ?-cell dysfunction potentiates amyloid formation and aggravates IL-1? production. Finally, we provide evidence to suggest that glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 agonists and IL-1R antagonists can effectively protect human islets from amyloid toxicity and introduce new strategies that focus on targeting amyloid apoptotic signaling pathway.
    Conclusion & Significance: In summary, amyloid formation is closely linked to islet inflammation and plays a significant role in progressive loss of ?-cells in T2D and islet grafts. GLP-1 agonists and IL-1R antagonists may efficiently protect human islets from amyloid toxicity in early stages of T2D and clinical islet transplantation.

  • Proteome profiling of C2C12 myotubes with alternated insulin sensitivity upon palmitic acid treatment

    The Chinese University of Hong Kong
    China
    Biography

    Ngai Sai Ming is currently Director of The Chinese Medicinal Fungal Proteomics Laboratory and Investigator of State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology and associate professsor in The School of Life Sciences, in The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China. His research interest is bioinformatics, proteomics and metabolomics, protein/peptide structural and functional studies, and Modern Chinese Medicine. He has over 20 years experience in Protein/Peptide biochemistry, proteomics and computational techniques and is the author of over 70 scientific publications, 4 book chaperters and numerous conference papers.

    Abstract

    Obesity has a tight association with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and elevated plasma free fatty acid level induced insulin resistance is believed as the link between obesity and T2DM. However, the detailed mechanism of the changes in plasma free fatty acid level result in insulin resistance remains to be elucidated. In this study, insulin desensitization was induced in C2C12 myotubes via palmitic acid treatment. To focus on the changes of nuclear proteome, nuclei of C2C12 myotubes were isolated for twodimensional gel electrophoresis based proteomic study.
    Result demonstrated that four nuclear proteins showed changes in expression after palmitic acid treatment; nuclear factor NF-kappa-B (NF-?B) p65 subunit and 60S acidic ribosomal protein P0 were upregulated, while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PPARGC-1?) and cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 5 (CFIm25) were downregulated. Whereas, inhibiting NF-?B p65 subunit nuclear translocation can prevent the palmitic acid induced deleterious effect on insulin sensitivity, implied that NF-?B p65 subunit play a key role in palmitic acid induced insulin desensitization. Methods: A murine skeletal muscle cell line, C2C12 myotubes were established and exposed to first, palmitic acid in order to induce insulin desensitization; and followed by treatment with oleic acid to act as control. To focus on the changes of nuclear proteome in comparing with that of the cytosolic proteomic status, nuclear fractions were enriched by centrifugation for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2- DE) based proteomic study.
    Results & Discussion: The 2-DE result was confirmed by western blotting analysis Five differentially expressed proteins were found. After 24 h fatty acid treatment, nuclear fractions were enriched and applied to 2-DE. Five proteins demonstrated changes in expression after palmitic acid treatment. Among these five proteins, nuclear factorkappa- B (NF-?B) p65 subunit and 60S acidic ribosomal protein P0 were upregulated, after exposed to plamitic acid; while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PPARGC-1?), cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 5 (CFIm25) and prohibitin were downregulated. Inhibiting NF-?B activation could rescue C2C12 myotubes from palmitic acid induced insulin desensitization. Inhibiting NF-?B activation by parthenolide reversed the deleterious effects of palmitic acid on Akt activation and insulin stimulated glucose uptake .These results indicated that NF-?B p65 subunit was involved in palmitic acid induced insulin desensitization.

  • Effect of low carbohydrate diet on metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Soochow University
    China
    Biography

    Xiao Hua Wang has completed her PhD majored in immunology from Soochow University. She has been the director of Medical Nursing over ten years. She has published more than 30 papers in impact journals and has been serving as a reviewer of some journals.

    Abstract

    Background: Currently, low-fat diet is mainly recommended in America and China [1]. However, the diet among T2DM are not complete accordance to the recommended protocol. Low-Carbohydrate Diet (LCD) achieved greater improvement in the lipid profile and blood glucose stability compared to low-fat diet [2]. In addition, food rich in carbohydrate were preferred by Chinese. It is worth of exploring the feasibility and effect of LCD in Chinese DM patients.
    Methods: We total enrolled 31 T2DM patients according to inclusion and exclusion. They were intentionally grouped into LCD group (N = 18) and Low-Fat Diet (LFD) group (N = 20).LFD group received regular loose LFD education (Six points Formulas); LCD group received loose LCD(Six points Formulas) education. After three months, we compared the percentage of energy from three macronutrients, HbA1c, BMI, TC, TG, LDL-C, HLD-C, insulin dose, the frequency of hypoglycemia.
    Results: (1) Adherence to LCD and LFD There were three patients missing or excluded in LCD group: one could not complete LCD, one was out-of-touch and another experienced appendectomy. However, four patients could not complete diet regimen in LFD group. (2) The percentages of energy from three macronutrients The percentages of energy from three macronutrients in LCD and LFD after intervention were all met the definition of LCD and LFD. (3) HbA1c The levels of HbA1c between intra-group in two group were significantly decreased (4) Lipids profile Compared with baseline, BMI, TG and HDL - C in LCD group were improved significantly after the intervention(P<0.01); while BMI only was improved in LFD group(P<0.01). After the intervention, the serum lipids profile had no difference between groups. (5) Insulin dose There were significantly reduced doses of insulin after intervention in both of groups (6) Hypoglycemia After the 3 months interventions, the frequency of hypoglycemia in LCD group has decreased significantly, compared to the baseline (P<0.05). In LFD group, the frequency of hypoglycemia had no significant change.
    Discussion: LCD intervention is feasible and easy-operated/ practical for the Chinese T2DM patients. It can effectively improve blood glucose, blood lipid and BMI. At the same time, it can reduce the dosage of insulin in patients with T2DM for the short term. This strategy should be recommended in Chinese T2DM patients.

  • Triphala improves glucose and lipid homeostasis by targeting AMPK, inflammation and oxidative stress in human type 2 diabetes

    All India Institute of Medical Sciences
    India
    Abstract

    Aim/Hypothesis: Ayurvedic formulation "Triphala" had gained consideration as an anti diabetic medicine in the Indian pharmacopeia. Chronic hyperglycemia is often associated with oxidative stress. To address oxidative stress and the related aetiologies viz., dyslipidemia and inflammation, we enhanced the potent antioxidant component E. officinalis and validated this anti diabetic formulation Triphala-411 viz., (Emblica officinalis: Terminalia chebula: Terminalia bellarica::4:1:1).
    Methods: Triphala-411 at a dose of 5 grams BD was administered orally for 12 months to human subjects with Type 2 diabetes, (n=20), Impaired glucose tolerance, IGT (n=10) and Normal glucose tolerance, NGT (n=10), based on their blood glucose levels and OGTT as recommended by WHO to assess its anti hyperglycemic, anti hyperlipidemic, anti oxidative and anti inflammatory potentials.
    Results: Significant reduction in blood glucose and atherogenic lipids in Triphala-411 treated IGT as well as Type 2 diabetes subjects could be attributed to the enhanced expression of AMP activated protein kinase and decreased expression of protein kinase C. Anti-inflammatory potential as assessed through down regulation of Interleukin-6 and TNF-?, up regulation of Interleukin-10 gene; and antioxidative effect as assessed through significantly increased activity of antioxidant enzymes, reduction in lipid peroxidation, significant reduction in comet tail length and Sub-G1 phase of cell cycle exhibited resistance to stresses developed during progression of Type 2 diabetes. Triphala-411 therapy also addressed diabetic complications as evident from the down regulation of Aldose reductase and Poly- ADP ribose polymerase.
    Conclusions: Triphala-411 proved itself as evidence based alternative anti-diabetic formulation owing to its antihyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-oxidative and antiinflammatory potential.

Keynote 1
Chair
Keynote 2
Chair
Oral Session 1
Oral Session 2
Oral Session 3
Oral Session 4
Workshop

Day 2

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS
  • Exploration of the effect of diabetes training in primary health care

    University of Greenwich
    United Kingdom
    Biography

    Dr Ojo has a PhD in nutrition from the University of Greenwich, London, a post graduate diploma in diabetes from University of Surrey, Roehampton and a graduate certificate in Higher Education from University of Greenwich. Prior to these qualifications, Dr Ojo had his BSc and MSc in animal science from University of Ibadan, Nigeria. He has been a Senior Lecturer in Primary Care for nearly seven years and he teaches across a range of courses and programmes in the Faculty of Education and Health, University of Greenwich. His key interest and areas of expertise are diabetes and nutrition which form the focus of his research and teaching activities. Dr Ojo leads the school Diabetes Specialist Interest Group and co-ordinates the Diabetes Care and Management course for post registration nurses and Patient Pathways of Care for pre-registration participants. He supervises both undergraduate and postgraduate research students including PhD students. His research interests are reflected in his 35 publications in reputable journals and 12 conference presentations. His work is recognised both nationally and internationally and he has been a keynote speaker at the NNNG conference in Manchester, UK and Global Diabetes Conference and Medicare Expo, in Birmingham, UK. Dr Ojo is a reviewer for a range of journals and he sits on the Editorial Board on a number of International Journals.

    Abstract

    Background: Despite the increasing prevalence of diabetes in the UK and worldwide and its effect on patients’ morbidity and mortality, evaluation of the impact of diabetes training that should sustain the quality of diabetes care provision is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the effect of diabetes training on the provision of diabetes care and service among healthcare professionals.
    Method: This was a qualitative research study involving healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses) who attended the diabetes training programme which consisted of a 3-day Foundation level course and/or the 2.5 day programme for injectable therapy (Pitstop) course. Participants attended four focus group sessions in health centres in East Kent, UK. Ethical approval for the study was obtained and all participants consented before taking part in the study. The focus group sessions were recorded using audiotapes which were then transcribed.
    Data Analysis: Four researchers carried out thematic analyses of the data separately and these were then integrated into six themes. The themes were; the benefits of the diabetes training, areas for improvement of the training, impact on health services, healthcare professionals and patients, and barriers to its implementation.
    Results: The benefits of the training included the resources provided, promotion of participants’ knowledge, ongoing support and the environment for inter-professional learning. On the other hand, the effect of the diabetes training was evident in terms of its positive impact on the practices or service delivery (such as improved team working), the healthcare professionals (improved knowledge and skills) and the patients (improved quality and continuity of care). Although there were merits in the training programme, there were also areas for improvement. Barriers to implementing the training programme included patients not attending appointments, volume of patients, not able to prescribe and

  • Subtle traps: Lessons from transplantation of pancreatic beta-precursor MSC

    Tel Aviv University
    Israel
    Biography

    Dr. Oron (currently Professor Emeritus at the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel) received his BSc in chemistry and his MSc and PhD in biochemistry from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. He further trained in diabetes research at the University of Virginia in the laboratory of Prof. Joseph Larner and continued to study signal transduction pathways at Tel Aviv University, utilizing mainly the Xenopus oocyte system and electrophysiology and microscopic imaging techniques as read-outs. In the last twelve years Dr. Oron changed the focus of his research to studying the biology of diabetes and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In the past he served as Department Chair and as a Head of the Office of International Academic Relations at Tel Aviv University. He has authored and co-authored more than 110 peer-reviewed publications in quality journals, including Nature, Science, PNAS, and J Physiol.

    Abstract

    Transplantation of stem cells-derived beta cells has been a target of diabetes research for many years, but has yet to mature into a therapeutic option. We showed previously that proliferating human islet-derived de-differentiated cells (DIDs) exhibit many characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Dispersed DIDs, induced by serum deprivation to undergo mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, aggregate into epithelial cell clusters (ECCs). ECCs implanted under kidney capsules of SKID mice tend to differentiate into ?-cell colony. Albeit in a large proportion of mice implanted cells de-differentiate back to stem-like phenotype. As ECCs disperse and undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by re-addition of sera, we postulated that the differentiation failure in vivo may have been due to an agent in the host serum. We found that PDGF-BB alone mimics serum-induced ECCs’ dispersal accompanied by accumulation of cytoplasmic b-catenin and a decrease in the levels of insulin and glucagon mRNAs. Moreover, PDGF-BB-induced dispersal of ECCs was a more general phenomenon that occurred with bone marrow MSC and dermal fibroblasts (DFs). In DIDs, BM-MSC, and DFs, PDGF decreased the levels of DKK1 mRNA, suggesting involvement of the Wnt signaling pathway. PDGF-BB stimulated a significant increase in S473 phosphorylation of Akt and the PI3K specific inhibitor (PIP828) partially inhibited PDGF-BB-induced ECC dispersal. Lastly, the PDGF-receptor (PDGF-R) antagonist JNJ-10198409 inhibited both PDGF-BB and serum-induced ECC dispersal. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), which shares most of the PDGF signaling pathway, did not induce dispersal and only weakly stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Hence, PDGF-BB mediated serum-induced DIDs dispersal correlated with the activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway. In conclusion, although we may manipulate cells to change their physiology, the ultimate result depends on many uncontrolled and/or unknown factors. Our understandings of the complexity of inter and an intracellular interaction in vitro and in vivo is still too sketchy to allow prediction of therapeutic outcomes.

  • Dissection the complexity of host susceptibility to type 2 diabetes development and the pharmacogenetics dilemma

    Tel Aviv University
    Israel
    Biography

    Prof. Iraqi is a molecular geneticist and world leader in the area of dissecting complex traits including hosts susceptibility to infection and chronic diseases. His current research is focused on understanding diseases etiology and host susceptibility to infectious and chronic diseases including Type 2 Diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) associated with obesity, Klebsiella pneumonia, Aspergillus fumigatus, dental infection (Periodontitis), gut microbiota and mapping modifiers for colon cancer development. Furthermore, he has an ongoing project for identifying the host genetic factors influencing immune response cell lineages in peripheral blood in the Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse population, which can lead to better predict host response to different diseases, based on genetic makeup (predictive genetic approach). His research projects are important for better understanding the host susceptibility to variety of infectious and chronic diseases, which will serve a step towards improving our knowledge of specific and general pathways and network systems, which can lead to establish better disease prevention and control strategies. For studying these diseases, he uses the mouse model, especially the unique and powerful mouse resource population known as the Collaborative Cross (CC), for studying systems genetics; including of performing quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, assessing gene expression profiles by RNAseq using deep sequence technology, which will lead of identifying and cloning the genes underlying the QTL, and subsequently indentify the ortholoug genes in human. He has number of ongoing joint collaborations with European scientists from Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, France, Spain and UK to use the CC mice for studying host susceptibility to different infectious and chronic diseases. Prof. Iraqi studied for his BSc. (Biology), MSc. (Biochemistry) and PhD (Molecular Genetics) at the Hebrew University at Jerusalem. He worked as a Postdoctoral for two years at the Hospital for Sick Children at Toronto, Canada, and two more years at the USDA, ARS- East Lansing, MI, before joining the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), based in Nairobi, Kenya as Scientist. In 2007, he moved to his current position as professor and Chairman of the department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, at the Faculty of Medicine at Tel-Aviv University. He has more than 135 publications on per reviewed Journals, and more than 25 book chapters. His current H-Index is 27.

    Abstract

    Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease characterized by impaired glucose tolerance. Despite environmental high risk factors, host genetic background is a strong component of T2D development. Identifying these genetic factors could contribute to developing new medical treatments and tools to identify most at risk individuals. Recently, a novel highly genetically diverse mouse resource population, named the Collaborative Cross (CC), was developed and aimed for studying complex traits, including T2D. The CC mice have more genetic diversity than human population. Here, we used this mouse population of mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) underlying impaired glucose tolerance phenotypic variations and associated diseases including liver fat accumulation in CC mice. Furthermore, we used Next generation RNA-sequencing (RNAseq) for studying gene expression variations and alternative splicing observation to identify genes that may underline the disease development. Our results have shown significant variations between the recorded phenotypes between the different CC lines and a sex was observed. QTL mapping results have identified number of small genomic regions associated with the tested traits.
    Methods: A Cohort of 683 mice of 68 CC lines maintained on high-fat (42% fat) diet (HFD) for 12 weeks followed by biweekly body weight (BW), body length (BL), waist circumstance (WC), and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Subsequently, assessed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), and liver weight (electronic balance) and fattiness (DEXA scanner) was assessed. Genomic DNA of the CC lines was genotyped with high-density single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers and finally QTL mapping was conducted. Next generation RNA-sequencing (RNAseq) was performed for livers of diabetic and non-diabetic mice of CC lines following 12 weeks HFD, and DNA methylation assessed on blood for testing epigenetic effect of HFD.
    Results & Discussion: Genome wide search for QTL analysis has revealed number of significant QTL associated with glucose tolerance test, which was defined as area under curve (AUC), as well QTL underline fatty liver accumulation as a results of T2D development. RNAseq approach of hepatic gene expression analysis has identified significant gene variations between the diabetic and no-diabetic mice, as well between both sexes.

  • Metformin and the prevention of cancer... Where is the position in 2017?

    Gulf Medical College Hospital & Research Center
    United Arab Emirates
    Abstract

    Obesity and its metabolic complications, including diabetes, have been associated with an increased risk of several cancers. Thus, the potential use of Metformin as a novel cancer prevention strategy has generated much excitement in view of its low cost, favorable safety profile, and its potential for biological specificity in disrupting the association between obesity and cancer. Metformin seems to affect multiple key processes related to cell growth, proliferation, and survival which stem from both metabolic and intracellular-signaling activity. Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production and reduces the bloodstream level and cellular uptake of insulin which results in reduced activation of insulin receptors on cell membranes, triggering a cascade of intracellular molecular effects, which are often activated in many types of cancer cells, in addition to up regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase, a key molecule in glucose and insulin regulation and also an inhibitor of mTOR. Treatment with Metformin has been associated in meta-analysis of case–control and cohorts with reduced breast, colon and pancreas cancer risk, although RCTs confirmed the inverse association or showed no impact of Metformin. It should be remembered that RCTs that find no association between Metformin and cancer were designed to analyze other outcomes, did not include adequate confounding factors and follow-up was too short (maximum 4 years). Despite this evidence the latest meta-analysis shows that Metformin decreased risk only for cancers of the liver, pancreas, colorectal and stomach. A meta-analysis of 8 cohorts, involving 2805 pancreatic patients with diabetes, demonstrated a favorable result for pancreatic cancer with improved overall survival (HR=0.78, 95% CI=0.66- 0.92). Metformin treatment is associated with a significant reduction in overall mortality irrespective of diabetes status in patients with endometrial cancer. Using Metformin as a cancer prevention strategy has been controversial and results have been inconsistent, but many analysis reveals that use of the drug is time-dependent, which may explain the disparity. Currently, doubt still remains whether the anti-cancer effects of Metformin observed in in vitro and in vivo studies will ultimately translate into clinical benefits in the ongoing clinical trials. While whether Metformin has a clinically-relevant chemo preventive or anti-cancer effect is not clear at present, the evidence from the ongoing human clinical trial studies will help to answer this critical issue.

  • The saga of glucose monitoring: Facts, questions, history and trends

    Iridium Consultancy and Technologies Ltd.
    Israel
    Abstract

    Since introduction of the first blood glucose meter by Bayer, about 36 years ago (1981), trillions of glucose measurements have been conducted by hundreds of millions people. Yet, no clear answers can be established from different users and medical experts in regard to glucose monitoring. Simple and basic questions such as how often, when, what to do with the numbers, which device, what’s the accuracy and so on, will produce full scale of answers, not rarely even contradicting ones. No wonder, though, that the diabetes community (general practitioners, diabetologists, endocrinologists) and mainly people with diabetes are confused and frustrated in this matter, which lead to many questions, doubts, uncertainty, insufficient utility in monitoring and reduced adherence in treating the disease. A question should be asked what’s the source for this confusion, and more importantly, how can these disputes be resolved, in order to achieve consistent answers, directions and guidelines to the users, as well as to the caregivers.
    Method: A deep research scanned the history of the development of glucose monitoring technologies, techniques and devices, analyzed the difficulties, potential causes and reasons for different approaches, variety of ways to read and understand results, as well as using and comparing the numbers. Meaning of accuracy assessments and subjective understandings, methods, clinical and statistical tools were also analyzed. New devices and trends were studied as well.
    Results & Discussion: The analysis shows a clear view of an expanded variety of parameters which directly lead to confusion in all the subject matters. Different types of measurements lead to different results, varied time of measurement lead to variation in readings. Availability of more data allows better understanding of the readings and how to use them. Different assessment methods lead to diversity of accuracy levels. Alternative methodologies and conduction of clinical trials cause altered results and understanding of devices’ behavior. Comparing levels of other components (for example, blood vs. ISF) lead to inconsistent results. Poor maintenance of the measuring devices and disposables, as well as human factors has major impact on the results. Lack of education reduces the confident and trust in the results, thus the utilization of glucose monitoring decreased.
    Conclusions: Deep understanding of glucose levels’ measurement and monitoring is a crucial parameter in achieving better utilization and adherence of treatment diabetes (and pre-diabetes). Such a comprehensive briefing is an important step to achieve better appreciation of the complexity of the subject, which may (and should) lead to improved handling and managing diabetes, as well as treating and preventing pre-diabetes progression

  • Implementation of preventive interventions for care of patients with type II diabetes at primary care clinics in British Columbia, Canada

    University of British Columbia
    Canada
    Biography

    Golshan Massah completed her Bachelors of Science from the University of British Columbia and is currently in her second year of medical school at the University of British Columbia School of Medicine. She is interested in preventive medicine and the management of chronic diseases in the primary care setting. Following her medical studies she hopes to pursue a residency in family medicine.

    Abstract

    Type II diabetes is a major public health issue with increasing prevalence in British Columbia and in Canada. The importance of life style changes for improving health outcomes in patients with type II diabetes is well known. There is newly emerging evidence suggestive of the reversibility of type II diabetes with the loss of 15% or more of body weight in obese patients. However, implementing these approaches at the primary care level is challenging mainly due to the lack of a local/provincial guideline. This study focused on developing a preventive guideline to be used at the primary care level in BC for the prevention and/ or reversal of type II diabetes at initial stages of disease.

  • Validity and reliability of a self-report measure of diet in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Vanderbilt University
    USA
    Biography

    Sylvie A. Akohoue is currently working as Adjunct Assistant Professor in Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology in Meharry Medical College, USA.

    Abstract

    Purpose: Patients with diabetes and low literacy and numeracy skills have difficulty adhering to dietary recommendations. Practical and effective tools assessing self-management behaviors are needed to help evaluate interventions tailored to the needs of individual patients or population groups. This study examined the psychometric properties of a short 11- item version of the Personal Diabetes Questionnaire scale (PDQ-11) among patients with Type 2 diabetes.
    Design Methods: Participants (n=411) completed the PDQ- 11 (English or Spanish version), the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA), the Perceived Diabetes Self- Management Scale (PDSMS), and the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS). Statistical analyses were conducted to explore the structure of the PDQ-11, and its internal reliability and validity.
    Results: Participants were 64% non-Hispanic whites; 18% non-Hispanic blacks; 24% Hispanics; with mean age, 49.3±9.4 years; mean education of 11.2±3.3 years; mean BMI, 35.8±8.9 kg/m2; and A1C, 9.6%±2.1. Factor analysis of the PDQ-11 revealed four components (items loading >0.40; cronbach's ?=0.50 - 0.81): eating behavior problems; use of information for dietary decision making; calorie restriction; and activity and exercise. eating behavior problems and use of information for dietary decision making had the strongest associations with the diet subscales of the SDSCA; general diet (rs=-0.29 and 0.31, respectively); specific diet (rs=- 0.20 and 0.19, respectively) and were also correlated with the PDSMS and ARMS scores (all ps<0.001). Different PDQ- 11 subscales predicted BMI (Calorie Restriction, ? = 0.17, p<0.01; and activity and exercise, ?=-0.17, p<0.01); diastolic blood pressure (eating behavior problems, ? =-0.14, p<0.01) and systolic blood pressure (Eating Behavior Problems, ? =-0.17, p<0.01).
    Conclusion: The PDQ-11 is a valid measure of dietary behaviors in patients with type 2 diabetes; its use may help to tailor individual nutrition intervention strategies

  • A cross-sectional study to evaluate diabetes management, control and complications in patients with type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh

    BIRDEM Hospital
    Bangladesh
    Biography

    Zafar Ahmed Latif is currently working in BIRDEM Hospital, Bangladesh

    Abstract

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess diabetes care delivery and status of long-term diabetes related complications. Methods: DiabCare is an observational, non-interventional, cross-sectional study of hospital-based outpatient type 2 diabetes cares.
    Results: A total of 2092 patients participated in the study: Mean age 51.3±11.0 years, and duration of diabetes 7.6±5.4 years. The patients were almost equal in both genders (male: 49.8% vs. female: 50.2%) and the largest homogenous ethnic group was Bangladeshi (99.6%). The percentage of patients with HbA1c<7.0% (<53 mmol/mol) was 22.5% and mean HbA1c was 8.8±2.2 %. The proportion of patients using insulin was 58.0% (n=1214) at a total daily dose of 34.4±14.7 IU. The most common diabetes related complications were: Peripheral neuropathy (39.0%) and eye complications (21.7%). Duration of diabetes was associated with higher odds of CV complications, diabetic nephropathy and eye complications [adjusted OR 1.03, p=0.007; 1.05, p<0.001 and 1.05, p<0.001 respectively]. Age also has emerged as a significant predictor for these complications. More than half of patients (56.1%) indicated their concerns about hypoglycaemia. A large proportion of patients were nonadherent to clinical recommendations.
    Conclusions: Poor glycaemic and metabolic control over a long period of time contributes to chronic diabetic complications. This underpins the need to further optimize the control strategies and maintain quality diabetes management standards in Bangladesh and also improving awareness among health professionals with intensive education programs for diabetes subjects is also recommended

  • Nanoparticles prepared from N, N-dimethyl, N-octyl chitosan as the novel approach for oral delivery of insulin: Preparation, statistical optimization and in vitro characterization

    Trinity School of Medicine
    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
    Biography

    Dr. Raju Panta has earned professional medical degrees of MBBS and MD (three year residency in Basic and Clinical Physiology), under merit?based full scholarships from the nationally and internationally accredited medical colleges in Nepal. He was awarded the “Certificate of Expertise in Electrophysiology” after completion of his doctorate thesis during his residency. His thoughtful ideas inspired him to accomplish research work on Diabetes Mellitus where he studied the electroencephalographic evidence of central neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients before overt peripheral neuropathy. Dr. Panta has been working in Trinity School of Medicine, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, West Indies, since November 2013 and serving as an Assistant Professor and Course Director of Physiology. In Trinity, he also has served as a member of the core committees for curriculum development, faculty search, promotion, research, academic progress, admissions, and institutional self-study. He has proven record of excellence in teaching as evidenced by a number of “SGA awards” awarded by ‘Student Government Association’ in recognition of the best professor in Trinity. In addition, he has extensive experience of participation in conferences, workshops, and continuing medical educations (CMEs) as a presenter, organizer, demonstrator, and a trainer. His organizational memberships include the American Physiological Society (APS), International Association of Medical Science Educators (IAMSE), Association for Medical Education in Europe (AMEE), Physiological Society of Nepal (PSN), and Nepal Medical Council.

    Abstract

    Neuropathies in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients are well documented. However, electrophysiological changes in their peripheral nerves, particularly before overt peripheral neuropathy have received much less attention. Hence, we studied electrophysiological status of bilateral sural nerves in T2DM patients who do not show clinical evidence of peripheral neuropathy. We selected 35 male patients with T2DM and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls without any clinical evidence of peripheral neuropathy and other infectious, systemic, metabolic, and neuropsychiatric illnesses after informed written consent. Nerve conduction study of bilateral sural nerves of both the groups was performed at lab temperature of 26±2ºC by antidromic method of stimulation. Latency, conduction velocity, amplitude, and duration of sural sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) were measured. In our study, we found reduced amplitudes of bilateral sural SNAP in T2DM patients compared to the controls [left (12.46 ± 3.77) ?V vs. (16.42 ± 4.58) ?V, p=0.000; right (11.96 ± 4.45) ?V vs. (16.62 ± 6.20) ?V, p=0.001] though they were above the normal cut-off value of ?4 ?V. Durations of bilateral sural SNAP were prolonged in T2DM patients compared to the controls [left (1.99 ± 0.38) ms vs. (1.67 ± 0.27) ms, p=0.000; right (1.92 ± 0.47) ms vs. (1.55 ± 0.33) ms, p=0.000]. Reduced amplitude of sural SNAP suggests axonal loss, whereas prolonged sural SNAP duration is seen in polyneuropathies. Hence, we concluded that electrophysiological alterations suggestive of peripheral neuropathy occur in T2DM patients before overt peripheral neuropathy. Early detection of peripheral neuropathy in T2DM patients helps to prevent long-term complications of diabetes mellitus such as foot ulcers and amputations.

  • Nanoparticles prepared from N, N-dimethyl, N-octyl chitosan as the novel approach for oral delivery of insulin: Preparation, statistical optimization and in vitro characterization

    Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
    Iran
    Biography

    Parham Norouzian is pharmacist student at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. He has published 2 articles in International journal of biology.

    Abstract

    The aim of this study is preparation, optimization and in vitro characterization of nanoparticles prepared from octyl chitosan as a new strategy for oral insulin delivery. For this study, N, N-dimethyl N-octyl chitosan was synthesized. Nanoparticles containing insulin were prepared using PEC method, and then were statistically optimized using the Box- Behnken response surface methodology. The independent factors were considered to be the insulin concentration, polymer concentration and pH of the polymer solution, while the dependent factors were characterized as the size, zeta potential, PdI and entrapment efficiency. The optimized nanoparticles were morphologically studied using SEM. The cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles on the Caco-2 cell culture was studied using the MTT cytotoxicity assay method, while the permeation of the insulin nanoparticles across the Caco-2 cell monolayer is also determined. Nanoparticles posed appropriate physicochemical properties. The SEM morphological studies showed spherical to sub-spherical nanoparticles with no sign of aggregation. The in vitro release study showed that 95.5±1.40% of the loaded insulin was released in 400 min. The cytotoxicity studies on the Caco-2 cell culture showed no significant toxicity after 5 h incubation. The permeability studies revealed significant enhancement in the insulin permeability using nanoparticles prepared from octyl chitosan at 240 min (11.3±0.78%). The obtained data revealed that insulin nanoparticles prepared from N, N-dimethyl, N-octyl chitosan can be considered as the good candidate for oral delivery of insulin compared to nanoparticles prepared from N, N, N- trimethyl chitosan.

  • Cognitive status of different food categories in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its effect on glycosylated hemoglobin

    Soochow University
    China
    Biography

    Ting Liu is currently a PhD student in Nursing School of Soochow University, China.

    Abstract

    Objectives: To explore cognitive status of different food categories in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its effect on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) with T2DM patients.
    Methods: Convenient sampling method was adopted. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, two hundred forty-nine patients were recruited from 5 hospitals in Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang and the diabetes clubs in Suzhou from October 2014 to October 2015. General Situation Questionnaire was utilized to obtain demographic data including age, sex, degree of education, et al. and clinical data including smoking, diabetes duration, family history of diabetes, et al. The Diabetes Mellitus Dietary Knowledge Scale (DDKS) was used to acquire cognitive status of different types of foods in T2DM patients. The patients with HbA1c values<6.5% and those with HbA1c values?6.5% were considered as the good glycemic control group and the poor glycemic control group, respectively. The factors related to glycemic control were analyzed.
    Results: The patients got the highest score in the foods item that have little effect on glycemia (3.55±1.38) and 25% of them completely answered correct. However, the patients obtained the lowest score in the item “Foods rich in healthy fat” (1.60±1.57). Only 1.6% patients completely answered correct. The average DDKS score of the good glycemic control group was 36.02, which was significantly higher than that of the poor glycemic control group (30.12) (P<0.001). Education level, body mass index (BMI) and clinical treatment were related to HbA1c control (P<0.05). The items of DDKS related to glycemic control included the items Preferentially chosen meat [B=-0.618;<0.01;95%CI (0.374-0.777)], preferentially chosen beans or milk [B=-0.404;P<0.05;95%CI(0.488-0.914)], Preferentially chosen dietary fiber [B=-0.409;P,<0.05;95% CI(0.485-0.910)], preferentially chosen nuts [B=-0.690;P< 0.001;95%CI(0.357-0.704)] and foods when hungry, not hypoglycemia [B=-0.518;P<0.001;95%CI(0.450-0.789)]. Adjusting demographic data (age, gender and education level) and clinical data (BMI, smoking, DM duration, DM family history, complications, concomitant disease, and clinical treatment), the item preferentially chosen nuts (B=- 0.56;P<0.01;95CI = 0.37-0.87) still influenced HgbA1c level. Other factors included education level, BMI and clinical treatment (P<0.05).
    Conclusions: T2DM patients had lower cognitive level of fat foods. Cognitive level of nuts of T2DM patients could predict glycemic control. The nursing staff should strengthen healthy education about fat foods, especially, foods rich in healthy fat.

  • Effect of different types of nuts on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Soochow University
    China
    Abstract

    Objective: To explore the effects of different types of nuts on blood glucose, blood lipids, body mass index (BMI) and inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
    Methods: This study was a prospective, single blind and randomized controlled trial. Convenient sampling method was adopted. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, T2DM patients were rescruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University and the diabetes clubs in Suzhou from December 2015 to August 2016. Patients were randomly assigned to peanut group (N=15) and almond group (N=17). In peanut group, male and female patients consumed peanut 60g/d and 50g/d, respectively; in almond group, male and female patients consumed almond 55g/d and 45g/d, respectively, for three months. Before the intervention, 1 week was washout period. All patients received scheduled telephone visits (once/week).When patients were recruited, two groups received the education of low carbohydrate diet by one-to-one. Blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and IL-6 were collected and compared at baseline as well as 3-month.
    Discussion Two different types of nuts can improve FPG. and consuming almonds can be conducive to stability of long-term blood glucose and improve BMI of T2DM patients. Therefore, it is recommended that obese patients with unstable blood glucose can moderately consume almonds. Peanuts are good for the patients with the poor FPG and high expression of inflammatory factors. These can be used as adjuvant therapy for T2DM patients

Keynote Session 2
Keynote session 1
Keynote Session 3
Special Session 1
Special Session 2
Poster 1
Poster 2
Poster 3
Poster 4
Poster 5
Poster 6
Poster 7

Day 3

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS
  • Complications and comorbidity of diabetes mellitus (DM) among Saudi in northern Saudi Arabia

    University of Hail
    Saudi Arabia
    Biography

    Abdulaziz Khalid Alsayegh is a Medical Intern at University of Hail. He gets a high school diploma with honors from Al-sadeeq high school in Hail, Saudi Arabia in 2011. He is the Leader of Students Club in Hail University and Member of the society of internal medicine at King Abdulaziz University. He holds many certificates in his medical degree, although participated in several medical researches. He got the first prize for the Best Project Award at Dr. Soliman Fakeeh Hospital which was held on August 2015 Jeddeh. He has successfully completed a US hands-on experience in the specialty of internal medicine at Poinciana Hospital Florida, USA in August, 2016 under the supervision of Doctor Don Elton

    Abstract

    DM is an extremely common metabolic disorder with great public health influence because of its harmful consequences triggering severe end-organ damage, including cardiovascular and neurological complications, diabetic retinopathy, and diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the complications and comorbidity of DM in Northern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methodology: Records of 50 diabetic patients were retrieved from King Khalid Hospital, Hail, KSA. Different complications and comorbidities were recorded and analyzed. Results: Peripheral neuropath, retinopathy, diabetic septic foot, and amputation were identified among 20/50(40), 19/50(38%), 7/50(14%), and 2/50(4%), respectively. Out of the 50 patients, 12/50(24%), 18/50(36%) and 8/50(16%) were found with thyroid diseases, dyslipidemia and renal complications, in this order. Conclusion: Diabetes complications and comorbidities including peripheral neuropath, retinopathy, diabetic septic, thyroid diseases, dyslipidemia and renal complications need to be considered in epidemiological studies, so as to monitor disease burden and quality of diabetes care.

  • The benefits of using the I-port system on insulin-dependent patients

    Taif University
    Saudi Arabia
    Biography

    Amal M Khan has completed her Bachelor of Medicine Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) at College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, KSA. She is an amateur writer, enthusiastic, patient and hard worker Medical Intern. She adores the scientific research and she will contentious the education in Family Medicine Residency program. She was a speaker at local and international conferences and was Best Young Researchers for oral presentation at the 14th international conference and exhibition on targeting diabetes and novel therapeutic, Malaysia. She has published a lot of researches in a field of diabetes. She has attended and participated at a lot of conference and workshop in endocrinology and medical field

    Abstract

    Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) show low adherence to insulin injections, which results in poor glycemic control. i-port advance provides a comfortable yet dependable way to inject insulin that allows patients to take multiple daily subcutaneous injections for three days without having to puncture skin for each dose of insulin. Our aim is to evaluate patient satisfaction, glycemic control, and adherence while using this device.
    Methods: This prospective study examined IDDM patients. Baseline characteristics and diabetes treatment satisfaction questionnaire status (DTSQs) were collected at baseline and at the end of the follow up. All patients were trained to use the i-Port. We divided them into two groups: regular users of the i-Port who used it for >3 months, and irregular users who used it for <3 months. The local complications during use of the i-Port were recorded.
    Results & Discussion: Of the total of 55 patients, 92.7% had type I diabetes, the mean age was 14.96+8.95, 92.7% were used an insulin pen. The patients were divided into 27 regular users and 28 irregular users. Irregular users had a longer duration of DM (p=0.901) at baseline and compared to the regular users, and they were less likely to report non-compliance with insulin usage (p=0.338), more likely to self-inject insulin (p=0.038), and had lower HbA1c (p=0.056). There was no statistical difference in the mean DTSQs score or the mean glycemic control score between groups. At the end of the follow up, the regular i-port usage improved compliance with insulin usage (p=0.028), reduced diabetes-related hospitalization (p <0.001), and reduced the frequency of hypoglycemia (p=0.184). Scarring at i-port site was the most common complication. Conclusion: Regular i-Port usage improved compliance and decreased hospitalization and hypoglycemic episodes with a non-significant 0.73% reduction in HbA1c.

  • Effect of aqueous extract of leaf and bark of guava (Psidium guajava) on fungi Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes and bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    University of Witwatersrand
    South Africa
    Biography

    A Adeagbo is a BSc (Hon.,) student of Gastroenterology Lab, School of Physiology, University of the Witwaterstrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. He studies Physiology from Olabisi Onabanjo University Nigeria. He has worked with Pinnacle Research Centre Nigeria for two years as a Research Assistant. He is currently working on combination of African herbs in management of diabetic type 1 and type 11 in sub- Saharan Africa

    Abstract

    In this study, we investigated the effects of P. guajava on organisms responsible for skin disorders, specifically the fungi: Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The leaves and bark of the P. guajava plant was harvested from Obasa farm Ijero, Ekiti-State, Nigeria, during the beginning of rainy season in March, 2009. Aqueous solutions were obtained by grinding the leaves and the bark. Mueller-Hinton agar was used to grow the bacteria S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Sabouraud Dextrose broth was used to grow the fungi Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. Analysis of the antibacterial action of the extracts of guava leaves and bark was carried out at different concentrations, by comparing the mean diameter of the inhibition haloes as a variable. Values were represented as mean ± S.E. An ANOVA Tukey’s test was performed to determine the mean difference between the control and the two treatments (S1 and S2). In comparing the tetracycline positive control to both solutions, tetracycline had a significantly (p<0.05) stronger inhibition effect than both solutions. This could be due to the fact that tetracycline is a pure chemical while the P. guajava solutions were crude extracts. Both P. guajava solutions were effective against inhibiting the growth of bacteria S. aureus and S. epidermidis, and fungi M. gypseum and T. mentagrophytes. This supports the reported use of P. guajava in many countries as a traditional herbal medicine.

  • Hypoglycemic effect of methanolic extract of Anacardium occidentale leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    University of Witwatersrand
    South Africa
    Abstract

    Anacardium occidentale leave (Anacardiaceae), a plant natively grown in wastelands in Africa is used as a folk remedy for diabetes mellitus. Previous studies, reported the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous leaf extract of A. occidentale in diabetic rats and its prophylactic activity against the diabetogenic action of streptozotocin This study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of a methanolic extract of streptozotocin leaves and its fractions in Alloxan-induced diabetic rats in comparison to tolbutamide, a reference drug. For moderately diabetic rat, A. occidentale caused a 79.2% change over 4 hours and Tolbutamide caused a 63.1% change over this same time period. When the rat were considered to be severely diabetic, the A. occidentale decreased the blood glucose levels by 20.8% change over four hours and the mean percent change over 4 hours for Tolbutamide was 47.63%. These values were not considered significant (p>0.05). So the same conclusion can be made about the efficacy of A. occidentale, when compared to the reference drug, Tolbutamide. These results that show that A. occidentale has a similar ability compared with Tolbutamide to lower blood glucose levels.

  • Management of diabetes mellitus patient in dental office

    Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Dental Sceinces and Research
    India
    Abstract

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by dys-regulation of carbohydrates, proteins and lipid metabolism. The primary feature of this disorder is elevation of blood glucose levels (Hyperglycemia). Almost every dentist encounters patient with diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes. Periodontal disease is the sixth most common complication of diabetes mellitus. Keeping this in view; it becomes utmost important that patient suffering from diabetes mellitus should be encouraged to maintain their oral hygiene. To manage such patients in dental office is the other important task to be accomplished by a general dentist. The dentist should be aware of systemic and oral signs and symptoms suggestive of uncontrolled or poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. They should also have knowledge of laboratory or interoffice screening test and should make them a part of routine dental practice. In this paper I will try to highlight the management of patient of diabetes mellitus in dental practice.

  • Diabetes and nutrition in low-income communities

    Makerere University
    Uganda
    Biography

    Kaboyo Muhammad has obtained his Bachelor’s degree in Medical Biology and he is currently conducting research for his Master’s degree at Makerere University. His focus areas comprise the biochemistry and genetics associated with chronic diseases, particularly diabetes.

    Abstract

    Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic disease and a major cause of premature death and disability. Its prevalence is increasing worldwide but significantly in developing countries. Besides genetic defects, tobacco smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and nutritional habits have been investigated as risk factors for diabetes mellitus in several studies. In terms of nutrition, the intake of fatty foods has been traditionally been linked to diabetes due to excessive acetyl-CoA in the citric acid cycle. However, oxidative stress caused by free radical resulting from the use of rancid oil in low-income communities constitutes an overseen cause of diabetes. Preliminary results of this study showed that rancid oil from household contains significant amounts of free radicals such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. Samples of these free radicals were tested on mice and were able to induce slowed activity of insulin producing cells and showed interference with drugs commonly used for diabetes treatment. Though preventive measures have been established, there is a need to investigate the risks of diabetes in poor communities who are exposed to free radicals from rancid oils

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